Troubleshooting BOSH Releases/Deployments

June 24, 2015 Brian Cunnie

featured-data-kernel This blog post describes the steps we took to resolve failures when developing our BOSH DNS Release. Although the steps described are specific to our BOSH DNS Release, we feel that they can be generalized to troubleshooting most if not all BOSH Releases.

Debugging a BOSH Release and it subsequent deployment can be challenging, but there are a few tricks which can ease the burden (e.g. preventing the tear-down of the compilation VM in order to troubleshoot the failure in vivo).

Note that several of the problems described here stemmed from our decision to rename our job from bind to named.

0. Troubleshooting BOSH compilation VM problems

Our compilation fails the first time; this is output of the bosh deploy command:

  Started compiling packages > bind-9-9.10.2/9e6f17bcebdc0acf860adf28de34e5a091c32173. Failed: Action Failed get_task: Task 3441c0a4-ce13-4d02-4e12-5c04f886145d result: Compiling package bind-9-9.10.2: Running packaging script: Command exited with 2; Truncated stdout: a - unix/time.o...

We modify the packaging script to help us debug:

  • insert sleep 10800 (10800 seconds (3 hours) should be long enough for us to troubleshoot this particular error)
vim packages/bind-9-9.10.2/packaging
    set -e
    sleep 10800
    ...
bosh create release --force
bosh upload release
bosh -n deploy
    ...
    Started compiling packages > bind-9-9.10.2/3220fc6c003bf67bd07bc63a124d96c315155625.

When the deploy enters the compilation phase, go to another terminal window to find the IP address of the compilation VM:

bosh vms
    ...
    +-----------------+---------+---------------+-------------+
    | Job/index       | State   | Resource Pool | IPs         |
    +-----------------+---------+---------------+-------------+
    | unknown/unknown | running |               | 10.244.0.70 |
    +-----------------+---------+---------------+-------------+

Our compilation VM is at 10.244.0.70. We log into it to see the status of the compilation:

ssh vcap@10.244.0.70
ssh: connect to host 10.244.0.70 port 22: Operation timed out

We cannot connect because we haven’t set our route to our BOSH Lite’s VMs. Let’s set our route and try again:

sudo route add -net 10.244.0.0/24 192.168.50.4
ssh vcap@10.244.0.70 # password is 'c1oudc0w'
sudo su - # password is still 'c1oudc0w'

We use ps to find the sleep command’s PID (239 in this case), which we use to determine (via the /proc filesystem) the location of the compilation directory:

ps auxwww | grep sleep
    root       239  0.0  0.0   4124   316 ?        S<   02:16   0:00 sleep 10800
ls -l /proc/239/cwd
    lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 May 25 02:21 /proc/239/cwd -> /var/vcap/data/compile/bind-9-9.10.2/bind-9.10.2

We cd into the compilation directory.

cd /var/vcap/data/compile/bind-9-9.10.2/bind-9.10.2

We set the BOSH_INSTALL_TARGET environment variable.

export BOSH_INSTALL_TARGET=/var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/

We change to the parent directory, edit the packaging script to remove the sleep command, and run the script with tracing enabled to see where it’s failing:

cd ..
vim packaging
    # sleep 10800
bash -x packaging
    ...
    packaging: line 29: --prefix=/var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/: No such file or directory

Our packaging script had an error. We fix the error locally on the compilation VM and test before backporting the change to our release.

When we’re finished, we kill the sleep process:

  • sleep will exit with a non-zero return code
  • since we have configured our packaging script to exit on errors (via set -e), our packaging script will exit with a non-zero return code
  • BOSH, upon receiving the non-zero return code from the packaging script, will tear down the now-unneeded compilation VM. BOSH will assume compilation has failed and won’t attempt a deploy.
killall sleep

1. Troubleshooting BOSH pre-compilation problems

We may fail before reaching the compilation phase:

bosh create release --force --with-tarball
[WARNING] Missing blobstore configuration, please update config/final.yml before making a final release
...
Building jobs
-------------
Job spec is missing

We examine our jobs/named/spec file; we notice that we mistakenly put a single quote within a single-quoted string in our spec file. We double-quote the string in order to fix the problem (we are not the only ones to have encountered this issue)

Broken spec:
    description: 'The contents of named.conf (named's configuration file)'
Fixed spec (double-quotes):
    description: "The contents of named.conf (named's configuration file)"

2. Troubleshooting the BOSH deployment

These are the steps we followed when our deployment successfully completed the compilation phase only to fail during deployment.

bosh -n deploy
  Started preparing deployment > Binding existing deployment. Failed: Timed out sending `get_state' to 45ae2115-e7b3-4668-9516-34a9129eb705 after 45 seconds (00:02:15)
  Error 450002: Timed out sending `get_state' to 45ae2115-e7b3-4668-9516-34a9129eb705 after 45 seconds
  Task 33 error
  For a more detailed error report, run: bosh task 33 --debug

We follow the suggestion:

bosh task 33 --debug
...
E, [2015-04-04 19:00:57 #2184] [task:33] ERROR -- DirectorJobRunner: Timed out sending `get_state' to 45ae2115-e7b3-4668-9516-34a9129eb705 after 45 seconds
/var/vcap/packages/director/gem_home/ruby/2.1.0/gems/bosh-director-1.2811.0/lib/bosh/director/agent_client.rb:178:in `block in handle_method'
/var/vcap/packages/ruby/lib/ruby/2.1.0/monitor.rb:211:in `mon_synchronize'
...
I, [2015-04-04 19:00:57 #2184] []  INFO -- DirectorJobRunner: Task took 2 minutes 15.042849130000008 seconds to process.
999

We determine the VM that’s running named:

bosh vms
...
  +-----------------+--------------------+---------------+-----+
  | Job/index       | State              | Resource Pool | IPs |
  +-----------------+--------------------+---------------+-----+
  | unknown/unknown | unresponsive agent |               |     |
  +-----------------+--------------------+---------------+-----+
...

We tell BOSH to run an IAAS consistency check (“cck”, i.e. “cloud check”):

bosh cck

BOSH cloud check discovers that a VM is missing; we tell BOSH to recreate it

Problem 1 of 1: VM with cloud ID `7e72c2bc-593d-42fb-5c69-9299d7ed47e8' missing.
  1. Ignore problem
  2. Recreate VM using last known apply spec
  3. Delete VM reference (DANGEROUS!)
Please choose a resolution [1 - 3]: 2

We ask for a listing of BOSH’s VMs:

bosh vms
...
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
  | Job/index | State   | Resource Pool | IPs         |
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
  | bind-9/0  | failing | bind-9_pool   | 10.244.0.66 |
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
...

We’ve gotten further: we have a VM that’s running, but now the job is failing, and we need to fix that. We need to ssh to the VM to troubleshoot further. We use BOSH’s ssh feature to ssh into the deployment’s VM. Notice how we identify the VM to BOSH: we don’t use the hostname or the IP address; instead, we use the job-name appended with the index (i.e. “bind-9 0”) (note we remove the “/”).

bosh ssh bind-9 0
...
  Enter password (use it to sudo on remote host): *

We set the password to ‘p’; we don’t need the password to be terribly secure—BOSH will create a throw-away userid (e.g. bosh_1viqpm7v5) that lasts only the duration of the ssh session. Also, since this is BOSH Lite (BOSH in a VM that’s only reachable from the hosting workstation), the VM is in essence behind a firewall.

We become root (troubleshooting is easier as the root user):

sudo su -
  [sudo] password for bosh_1viqpm7v5:
  -bash-4.1#

We check the status of the job:

/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
  The Monit daemon 5.2.4 uptime: 3h 43m

  Process 'bind'                      Execution failed
  System 'system_64100128-c43d-4441-989d-b5726379f339' running

We tell monit to not try to restart the BIND daemon so we can start it manually to determine where it’s failing:

/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit stop bind
bash -x /var/vcap/jobs/bind/bin/ctl start
...
  + exec /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/bind/etc/named.conf
  /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named: error while loading shared libraries: libjson.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

We fix our release to install libjson.0, upload the release, and redeploy. Our bosh vms command shows the job as failing, so we again ssh into our VM and check monit‘s status:

/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
  Process 'bind'                      not monitored

Now we check the logs. We were lazy—we let named default to logging to syslog using the daemon facility, so we check the daemon log to see why it failed:

bosh ssh bind-9 0
...
tail /var/log/daemon.log
...
  Apr  5 04:53:44 kejnssqb34o named[2819]: /var/vcap/jobs/bind/etc/named.conf:6: expected IP address near 'zone'
  Apr  5 04:53:44 kejnssqb34o named[2819]: loading configuration: unexpected token
  Apr  5 04:53:44 kejnssqb34o named[2819]: exiting (due to fatal error)

In our haste we botched our deployment manifest (bind-9-bosh-lite.yml), and the section for the config_file was incomplete (the forwarders section was empty and lacked a closing brace (“};”)):

...
  properties:
     config_file: |
       options {
         recursion yes;
         forwarders {
       zone "." in{
...

We fix our manifest and redeploy, but it’s still failing:

bosh -n deploy
bosh vms
...
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
  | Job/index | State   | Resource Pool | IPs         |
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
  | bind-9/0  | failing | bind-9_pool   | 10.244.0.66 |
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
...

We ssh in and troubleshoot:

bosh ssh bind-9
...
sudo su -
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
...
  Process 'bind'                      not monitored
...

We check the logs:

tail /var/log/daemon.log
...
  Apr  9 02:54:53 kh2fp1cb3r7 named[1813]: the working directory is not writable
  Apr  9 02:54:53 kh2fp1cb3r7 named[1813]: managed-keys-zone: loaded serial 0
  Apr  9 02:54:53 kh2fp1cb3r7 named[1813]: all zones loaded
  Apr  9 02:54:53 kh2fp1cb3r7 named[1813]: running

named has seemed to start correctly. Let’s double-check and make sure it’s running:

ps auxwww | grep named
...
  vcap      1813  0.0  0.2 239896 13820 ?        S<sl 02:54   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/bind/etc/named.conf
  vcap      1826  0.0  0.2 173580 12896 ?        S<sl 02:55   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/bind/etc/named.conf
  vcap      1838  0.5  0.2 239116 12888 ?        S<sl 02:56   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/bind/etc/named.conf

monit attempts to start named, which succeeds, but monit seems to think that it has failed (that’s why we see three copies of namedmonit has attempted to start named at least three times)

We examine monit‘s log file:

tail /var/vcap/monit/monit.log
...
  [UTC Apr  9 02:50:53] info     : 'bind' start: /var/vcap/jobs/bind/bin/ctl
  [UTC Apr  9 02:51:23] error    : 'bind' failed to start
  [UTC Apr  9 02:51:33] error    : 'bind' process is not running
  [UTC Apr  9 02:51:33] info     : 'bind' trying to restart
  [UTC Apr  9 02:51:33] info     : 'bind' start: /var/vcap/jobs/bind/bin/ctl

We suspect the PID file is the problem; we notice that our ctl.sh template places the PID file in /var/vcap/sys/run/named/pid, but that in jobs/bind/monit we specify a completely different location, i.e. /var/vcap/sys/run/bind/pid.

We recreate our release, upload our release, and deploy it:

bosh -n deploy
...
  Failed: Permission denied @ dir_s_mkdir - /vagrant/tmp (00:00:00)
  Error 100: Permission denied @ dir_s_mkdir - /vagrant/tmp

We need to fix our Vagrant permissions (described in this thread). The thread describes a permanent fix; our fix below is merely temporary (i.e. when the BOSH Lite VM is recreated you will need to run the commands below again):

pushd ~/workspace/bosh-lite/
vagrant ssh -c "sudo chmod 777 /vagrant"
popd

We attempt our deploy again:

bosh -n deploy
...
  Failed: Creating VM with agent ID 'fbb2ba55-d27c-40e5-9bdd-889a4ec6d356': Creating container: network already acquired: 10.244.0.64/30 (00:00:00)

We have run out of IPs for our compilation VM (we believe it’s because we have but one usable IP address, and our BIND VM is using it). We delete our deployment and re-deploy:

bosh -n delete deployment bind-9-server
...
bosh -n deploy
...
  Failed: `bind-9/0' is not running after update (00:10:11)
  Error 400007: `bind-9/0' is not running after update

We check if the VM is running and then ssh to it:

bosh vms
...
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
  | Job/index | State   | Resource Pool | IPs         |
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
  | bind-9/0  | failing | bind-9_pool   | 10.244.0.66 |
  +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
...
bosh ssh bind-9
...
sudo su -
...
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
  /var/vcap/monit/job/0000_bind.monitrc:3: Warning: the executable does not exist '/var/vcap/jobs/named/bin/ctl'
  /var/vcap/monit/job/0000_bind.monitrc:4: Warning: the executable does not exist '/var/vcap/jobs/named/bin/ctl'
  The Monit daemon 5.2.4 uptime: 18m

We had made a mistake in our jobs/named/spec file; we had configured the name to be bind when we should have configured it to be named. We re-create our release and deploy:

 # fix `name`
vim jobs/named/spec
bosh create release --force
bosh upload release
bosh -n delete deployment bind-9-server
bosh -n deploy
  Failed: Can't find template `bind' (00:00:00)
  Error 190012: Can't find template `bind'

We had not changed our job name from bind-9 to named in our manifest; we edit our manifest and deploy again:

 # fix `name`
vim config/bind-9-bosh-lite.yml
bosh create release --force
bosh upload release
bosh -n delete deployment bind-9-server
bosh -n deploy
  Failed: `named/0' is not running after update (00:10:10)
  Error 400007: `named/0' is not running after update

We look at the VMs and then check monit‘s log:

bosh vms
    +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
    | Job/index | State   | Resource Pool | IPs         |
    +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
    | named/0   | failing | bind-9_pool   | 10.244.0.66 |
    +-----------+---------+---------------+-------------+
bosh ssh named
sudo su -
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
    Process 'named'                     not monitored
ps auxwww | grep named
    # MANY processes
killall named
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit stop named
tail /var/vcap/monit/monit.log
    [UTC Apr  9 14:41:46] info     : 'named' start: /var/vcap/jobs/named/bin/ctl
    [UTC Apr  9 14:42:16] error    : 'named' failed to start
    [UTC Apr  9 14:42:26] error    : 'named' process is not running
    [UTC Apr  9 14:42:26] info     : 'named' trying to restart

We check our pid file:

ls ls /var/vcap/sys/run/named/
    named.pid  pid  session.key

We see notice that there are two pid files: the one we specified, pid, and one that’s most likely created by named (named.pid). We check our running named processes and note the PIDs of the first four entries. We compare that to the processes that are running:

ps auxwww | grep named
    vcap       193  0.0  0.2 239896 13912 ?        S<sl 19:37   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    vcap       207  0.0  0.2 239116 12936 ?        S<sl 19:37   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    vcap       221  0.0  0.2 173580 12972 ?        S<sl 19:38   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    vcap       233  0.0  0.2 239116 12976 ?        S<sl 19:38   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    ...
head -4 /var/vcap/sys/run/named/pid
    120
    203
    217
    229

The PIDs don’t match. Our startup script records the wrong PID, and monit, seeing that process is no longer running, attempts to start named again.

We dig further and realize that /var/vcap/sys/run/named/named.pid is the correct PID, so we modify our release to use that as the PID file.

An alternative solution would be to specify the correct pid in our deployment manifest, in the properties section that includes the named.conf, but we are hesitant to force our users to include options { pid-file "/var/vcap/sys/run/named/pid"; };. We feel that our release should manage the pid file, not the user.

We make our changes and redeploy. Success. We test our DNS service by querying it using nslookup:

nslookup google.com. 10.244.0.66
    Server:     10.244.0.66
    Address:    10.244.0.66#53

    ** server can't find google.com: REFUSED

We ssh into our VM and make sure that named is listening on all interfaces:

bosh ssh named
...
ss -a | grep domain
    LISTEN     0      10            10.244.0.66:domain                   *:*
    LISTEN     0      10              127.0.0.1:domain                   *:*
    LISTEN     0      10                     :::domain                  :::*

named has correctly bound it its external IP address (10.244.0.66), so let’s try an nslookup from the VM itself:

nslookup google.com. 10.244.0.66
    Server:     10.244.0.66
    Address:    10.244.0.66#53

    Non-authoritative answer:
    Name:   google.com
    Address: 74.125.239.136
...

The lookup from the VM succeeded, but from without did not. We check named‘s log file:

less /var/log/daemon.log
    Apr 11 20:38:35 ace946c0-170d-4a59-a9d7-0a08050c24f9 named[469]: client 192.168.50.1#57821 (google.com): query (cache) 'google.com/A/IN' denied

We see that named receive the request and explicitly denied it. It seems we have mis-configured the named configuration that is specified in config/bind-9-bosh-lite.yml.

We decide to edit the configuration in place on the VM; when we’re sure our changes work, we’ll backport them to the deployment manifest. We edit the configuration to include a directive to allow all queries, including ones that do not originate from the loopback address (i.e. we add allow-recursion { any; };):

bosh ssh named
sudo su -
 # edit the named.conf to allow recursion
vim /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    options {
      allow-recursion { any; };
      ...
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit restart named
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
    ...
    Process 'named'                     Execution failed

We check to to make sure named is running, and that its PID matches the contents of the named.pid file:

ps auxwww | grep named
    vcap       386  0.0  0.2 370968 13936 ?        S<sl 15:27   0:00 /var/vcap/packages/bind-9-9.10.2/sbin/named -u vcap -c /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    root       455  0.0  0.0  11356  1424 ?        S<   18:33   0:00 /bin/bash /var/vcap/jobs/named/bin/ctl stop
cat /var/vcap/sys/run/named/named.pid
    386

We determine 2 things:

  1. named is running, and its PID matches the entry in the PID file
  2. monit‘s attempt to restart named has apparently hung on the portion that stops the named server.

We kill monit‘s process to stop named, and run it manually with tracing on so we can determine the cause of the hang:

kill 455
 # make sure it's really dead:
ps auxwww | grep 455
bash -x /var/vcap/jobs/named/bin/ctl stop
    + RUN_DIR=/var/vcap/sys/run/named
    + PIDFILE=/var/vcap/sys/run/named/named.pid
    + case $1 in
    ++ cat /var/vcap/sys/run/named/named.pid
    + PID=386
    + '[' -n 386 ']'
    + SIGNAL=0
    + N=1
    + kill -0 386
    + '[' 1 -eq 1 ']'
    + echo 'waiting for pid 386 to die'
    waiting for pid 386 to die
    + '[' 1 -eq 11 ']'
    + '[' 1 -gt 20 ']'
    + n=2
    + sleep 1
    + kill -0 386
    + '[' 1 -eq 1 ']'
    + echo 'waiting for pid 386 to die'
    waiting for pid 386 to die
    + '[' 1 -eq 11 ']'
    + '[' 1 -gt 20 ']'
    + n=2

We realize we have made a mistake in our ctl.sh template; we used uppercase ‘N’ for a variable except when we incremented, where we mistakenly used a lowercase ‘n’.

We also realize that our kill script attempts to [initially] kill with a signal ‘0’, which we don’t understand because kill -0, according to the man page, doesn’t do anything (“If sig is 0, then no signal is sent”). We decide that a mistake of this magnitude deserves a re-write of the ctl.sh template and a redeploy:

vim jobs/named/templates/ctl.sh
 # make changes and then
 # check for syntactic correctness
bash -n jobs/named/templates/ctl.sh
bosh create release --force
 # we're already up to release 13
bosh upload release dev_releases/bind-9/bind-9-0+dev.13.yml
bosh -n deploy --recreate
nslookup google.com. 10.244.0.66
    ** server can't find google.com: REFUSED
bosh ssh named
sudo su -

We pick up our debugging where we left off—edit named‘s configuration in place on the VM; when we’re sure our changes work, we’ll backport them to the deployment manifest. We edit the configuration to include a directive to allow all queries, including ones that do not originate from the loopback address (i.e. we add allow-recursion { any; };):

 # edit the named.conf to allow recursion
vim /var/vcap/jobs/named/etc/named.conf
    options {
      allow-recursion { any; };
      ...
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit restart named
/var/vcap/bosh/bin/monit summary
    ...
    Process 'named'                     running

It appears that our change to monit‘s ctl.sh template was successful. Now let’s test from our workstation to see if our re-configuration of named allows recursion:

nslookup google.com. 10.244.0.66
    Server:     10.244.0.66
    Address:    10.244.0.66#53

    Non-authoritative answer:
    Name:   google.com
    Address: 216.58.192.46

We backport our change to our deployment’s manifest:

vim config/bind-9-bosh-lite.yml
      properties:
        config_file: |
          options {
            allow-recursion { any; };

We deploy again:

bosh -n deploy --recreate
nslookup google.com 10.244.0.66

At this point we conclude our debugging, for our release is working as expected.

bosh-init troubleshooting

bosh-init deploy config/bind-9-ntp-aws.yml
Command 'deploy' failed:
  Deploying:
    Building state for instance 'named_and_ntp/0':
      Rendering job templates for instance 'named_and_ntp/0':
        Rendering templates for job 'named/6220dda89cf6b85d6821667e63661ee059b8637a':
          Rendering template src: ctl.sh, dst: bin/ctl:
            Rendering template src: /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/bosh-init-release258719544/extracted_jobs/named/templates/ctl.sh, dst: /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/rendered-jobs231930644/bin/ctl:
              Running ruby to render templates:
                Running command: 'ruby /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/erb-renderer068207971/erb-render.rb /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/erb-renderer068207971/erb-context.json /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/bosh-init-release258719544/extracted_jobs/named/templates/ctl.sh /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/rendered-jobs231930644/bin/ctl', stdout: '', stderr: '/var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/erb-renderer068207971/erb-render.rb:11:in `merge!': no implicit conversion of nil into Hash (TypeError)
    from /var/folders/5q/p12p8rq57hx83fm555qrd2k80000gn/T/erb-renderer068207971/

We mistakenly used the release names (e.g. bind-9 and ntp) instead of our job names (e.g. named and ntpd) in our manifest’s properties section.

References

The official BOSH documentation contains a list of IaaS-specific errors that one may encounter during deployments:

Acknowledgements

Dmitriy Kalinin‘s input was invaluable when correcting errors and simplifying the debugging process.

About the Author

Biography

More Content by Brian Cunnie
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The Road to Persistent Data Services on Cloud Foundry Diego
The Road to Persistent Data Services on Cloud Foundry Diego

During a presentation at the Cloud Foundry Summit 2015, Pivotal’s Caleb Miles and Ted Young of Guidewire So...

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Making Or Saving Money With Big Data
Making Or Saving Money With Big Data

Based on a listener suggestion, this week host Simon Elisha discusses examples of some of the data science ...